Hans de Goede (hansdegoede) wrote,
Hans de Goede

Changing hidden/locked BIOS settings under Linux

This all started with a Mele PCG09 before testing Linux on this I took a quick look under Windows and the device-manager there showed an exclamation mark next to a Realtek 8723BS bluetooth device, so BT did not work. Under Linux I quickly found out why, the device actually uses a Broadcom Wifi/BT chipset attached over SDIO/an UART for the Wifi resp. BT parts. The UART connected BT part was described in the ACPI tables with a HID (Hardware-ID) of "OBDA8723", not good.

Now I could have easily fixed this with an extra initrd with DSDT-overrride but that did not feel right. There was an option in the BIOS which actually controls what HID gets advertised for the Wifi/BT named "WIFI" which was set to "RTL8723" which obviously is wrong, but that option was grayed out. So instead of going for the DSDT-override I really want to be able to change that BIOS option and set it to the right value. Some duckduckgo-ing found this blogpost on changing locked BIOS settings.

The flashrom packaged in Fedora dumped the BIOS in one go and after build UEFITool and ifrextract from source from their git repos I could extract the interface description for the BIOS Setup menus without issues (as described in the blogpost). Here is the interesting part of the IFR for changing the Wifi/BT model:

[Spoiler (click to open)]
0xC521 One Of: WIFI, VarStoreInfo (VarOffset/VarName): 0x110, VarStore: 0x1, QuestionId: 0x1AB, Size: 1, Min: 0x0, Max 0x2, Step: 0x0 {05 91 53 03 54 03 AB 01 01 00 10 01 10 10 00 02 00}
0xC532 One Of Option: RTL8723, Value (8 bit): 0x1 (default) {09 07 55 03 10 00 01}
0xC539 One Of Option: AP6330, Value (8 bit): 0x2 {09 07 56 03 00 00 02}
0xC540 One Of Option: Disabled, Value (8 bit): 0x0 {09 07 01 04 00 00 00}
0xC547 End One Of {29 02}

So to fix the broken BT I need to change the byte at offset 0x110 in the "Setup" EFI variable which contains the BIOS settings from 0x01 to 0x02. Easy, one problem though, the "dd on /sys/firmware/efi/efivars/Setup-..." method described in the blogpost does not work on most devices. Most devices protect the BIOS settings from being modified this way by having 2 Setup-${GUID} EFI variables (with different GUIDs), hiding the real one leaving a fake one which is only a couple of bytes large.

But the BIOS Setup-menu itself is just another EFI executable, so how can this access the real Setup variable ? The trick is that the hiding happens when the OS calls exitbootservices to tell EFI it is ready to take over control of the machine. This means that under Linux the real Setup EFI variable has been hidden early on during Linux boot, but when grub is running it is still available! And there is a patch adding a new setup_var command to grub, which allows changing BIOS settings from within grub.

The original setup_var command picks the first Setup EFI variable it finds, but as mentioned already in most cases there are 2, so later an improved setup_var_3 command was added which instead skips Setup EFI variables which are too small (as the fake ones are only a few bytes). After building an EFI version of grub with the setup_var* commands added it is just a matter of booting into a grub commandline and then running "setup_var_3 0x110 2" and from then on the BIOS shows the WIFI type as being AP6330 and the ACPI tables will now report "BCM2E67" as HID for the BT and just like that the bluetooth issue has been fixed.

For your convenience I've uploaded a grubia32.efi and a grubx64.efi with the setup_var patches added here. This is build from this branch at this commit (this was just a random branch which I had checked out while working on this).

The Mele PCG09 use-case for modifying hidden BIOS-settings is a bit of a corner-case. Intel Bay- and Cherry-Trail SoCs come with an embedded OTG XHCI controller to allow them to function as an USB device/gadget rather then only being capable of operating as an USB host. Since most devices ship with Windows and Windows does not really do anything useful with USB-device controllers, this controller is disabled by most BIOS-es and there is no visible option to enable it. The same approach from above can be used to enable the "USB OTG" option in the BIOS so that we can use this under Linux. Lets take the Teclast X89 (Windows version) tablet as example. Extracting the IFR and then looking for the "USB OTG" function results in finding this IFR snippet:

[Spoiler (click to open)]
0x9560 One Of: USB OTG Support, VarStoreInfo (VarOffset/VarName): 0xDA, VarStore: 0x1, QuestionId: 0xA5, Size: 1, Min: 0x0, Max 0x1, Step: 0x0 {05 91 DE 02 DF 02 A5 00 01 00 DA 00 10 10 00 01 00}
0x9571 Default: DefaultId: 0x0, Value (8 bit): 0x1 {5B 06 00 00 00 01}
0x9577 One Of Option: PCI mode, Value (8 bit): 0x1 {09 07 E0 02 00 00 01}
0x957E One Of Option: Disabled, Value (8 bit): 0x0 {09 07 3B 03 00 00 00}
0x9585 End One Of {29 02}

And then running "setup_var_3 0xda 1" on the grub commandline results in a new "00:16.0 USB controller: Intel Corporation Atom Processor Z36xxx/Z37xxx Series OTG USB Device" entry showing up in lspci.

Actually using this requires a kernel with UDC (USB Device Controller) support enabled as well as some USB gadget drivers, at least the Fedora kernel does not have these enabled by default. On Bay Trail devices an external device-mode USB-PHY is necessary for device-mode to actually work. On a kernel with UDC enabled you can check if your hardware has such a phy by doing: "cat /sys/bus/ulpi/devices/dwc3.4.auto.ulpi/modalias" if there is a phy this will usually return "ulpi:v0451p1508". If you get "ulpi:v0000p0000" instead then your hardware does not have a device-mode phy and you cannot use gadget mode.

On Cherry Trail devices the device-mode phy is build into the SoC, so on most Cherry Trail devices this just works. There is one caveat though, the x5-z83?0 Cherry Trail SoCs only have one set of USB3 superspeed data lines and this is part of the USB-datalines meant for the OTG port. So if you have a Cherry Trail device with a x5-z83?0 SoC and it has a superspeed (USB3) USB-A port then that is using the OTG superspeed-lines, when the OTG XHCI controller is enabled and the micro-usb gets switched to device-mode (which it also does when charging!) then this will now also switch the superspeed datalines to device-mode, disconnecting any superspeed USB device connected to the USB-A port. So on these devices you need to choose, you can either use the micro-usb in device-mode, or get superspeed on the USB-A port, you cannot use both at the same time.

If you have a kernel build with UDC support a quick test is to run a USB-A to micro-B cable from a desktop or laptop to the tablet and then do "sudo modprobe g_serial" on the tablet, after this you should see a binch of messages in dmesg on the desktop/tablet about an USB device showing up ending with something like "cdc_acm 1-3:2.0: ttyACM0: USB ACM device". If you want you can run a serial-console on the tablet on /dev/ttyGS0 and then connect to it on the desktop/laptop at /dev/ttyACM0.
Tags: acpi, baytrail, cherrytrail, fedora, linux

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