Tags: gnome

me

Plug and play support for (Gaming) keyboards with a builtin LCD panel

A while ago as a spin-off of my project to improve support for Logitech wireless keyboards and mice I have also done some work on improving support for (Gaming) keyboards with a builtin LCD panel.

Specifically if you have a Logitech MX5000, G15, G15 v2 or G510 and you want the LCD panel to show something somewhat useful then on Fedora 31 you can now install the lcdproc package and it will automatically recognize the keyboard and show "top" like information on it. No need to manually write an LCDd.conf or anything, this works fully plug and play:

sudo dnf install lcdproc
sudo udevadm trigger


If you have a MX5000 and you do not want the LCD panel to show "top" like info, you may still want to install the mx5000tools package, this will automatically send the system time to the keyboard, after which it will display the time.

Once the 5.5 kernel becomes available as an update for Fedora you will also be able to use the keys surrounding the LCD panel to control the lcdproc menu-s on the LCD panel. The 5.5 kernel will also export key backlight brightness control through the standardized /sys/class/leds API, so that you can control it from e.g. the GNOME control-center's power-settings and you get a nice OSD when toggling the brightnesslevel using the key on the keyboard.

The 5.5 kernel will also make the "G" keys send standard input-events (evdev events), once userspace support for the new key-codes these send has landed, this will allow e.g. binding them to actions in GNOME control-center's keyboard-settings. But only under Wayland as the new keycodes are > 255 and X11 does not support this.
me

Xwayland randr resolution change emulation now available in Fedora 31

As mentioned in an earlier blogpost, I have been working on fixing many games showing a small image centered on a black background when they are run fullscreen under Wayland. In that blogpost I was moslty looking at how to solve this for native Wayland games. But for various reasons almost all games still use X11, so instead I've ended up focussing on fixing this for games using Xwayland.

Xwayland now has support for emulating resolution changes requested by an app through the randr or vidmode extensions. If a client makes a resolution change requests this is remembered and if the client then creates a window located at the monitor's origin and sized to exactly that resolution, then Xwayland will ask the compositor to scale it to fill the entire monitor.

For apps which use _NET_WM_FULLLSCREEN (e.g. SDL2, SFML or OGRE based apps) to go fullscreen some help from the compositor is necessary. This is currently implemented in mutter. If you are a developer of another compositor and have questions about this, please drop me an email.

I failed to get this all upstream in time for Fedora 31 final. But now it is all upstream, so 've backported the changes and created an update with the changes. This update is currently in updates-testing, to install this update run the following command:

sudo dnf upgrade --enablerepo=updates-testing --advisory=FEDORA-2019-103a594d07
me

Capslock and keyboard layout indicator for plymouths diskcrypt password screen

As some of you running Fedora 31 may already have noticed, I have some good news to share. As part of my recent work on plymouth I've implemented a feature request which was first requested in 2012: support for an indicator that capslock is active while entering the disk unlock password for machines using full diskencryption. Besides the capslock indicator I've also added support for an indicator of the configured keyboard layout, since this sometimes also causes confusion:



And here is what it looks like when capslock is pressed:



If you're running Fedora 31 with full diskencryption then you may notice that the above screenshots are slightly different then what you have now. I've pushed an update to Fedora 31 updates-testing today which implements a few small tweaks to the theme after feedback from the design-team on the initial version. For those of you still on Fedora 30, this is coming to Fedora 30 too, it should show up in updates-testing with the next updates push.
me

Better support for running games under Wayland (with GNOME3/mutter as compositor)

First of all I do not want people to get their hopes up about $subject of this blogpost. Improving gaming support is a subjects which holds my personal interest and it is an issue I plan to spend time on trying to improve. But this will take a lot of time (think months for simple things, years for more complex things).

As I see it there are currently 2 big issues when running games under Wayland:

1. Many games show as a smal centered image with a black border (letterbox) around the image when running fullscreen.

For 2D games this is fixed by switching to SDL2 which will transparently scale the pixmap the game renders to the desktop resolution. This assumes that 2D games in general do not demand a lot of performance and thus will not run into performance issues when introducing an extra   scaling step. A problem here is that many games still use SDL1.2 (and some games do not use SDL at all).

I plan to look into the recently announced SDL1.2 compatibility wrapper around SDL2. If this works well this should fix this issue for all SDL1.2 2D games, by making them use SDL2 under the hood.

For 3D games this can be fixed by rendering at the desktop resolution, but this might be slow and rendering at a lower resolution leads to the letterbox issue.

Recently mutter has has grown support for the WPviewport extension, which allows Wayland apps to tell the compositor to scale the pixmap the app gives to the compositor before presenting it. If we add support to SDL2's Wayland backend for this then, this can be used to allow rendering 3D apps at a lower resolution and still have them fill the entire screen.

Unfortunately there are 2 problems with this plan:

  1. SDL2 by default uses its x11 backend, not its wayland backend. I'm not sure what fixes need to be done to change this, at a minimum we need a fix at either the SDL or mutter side for this issue, which is going to be tricky.

  2. This only helps for SDL2 apps, again hopefully the SDL1.2 compatibility wrapper for SDL2 can help here, at least for games using SDL.

2. Fullscreen performance is bad with many games.

Since under Wayland games cannot change the monitor resolution, they need to either render at the full desktop resolution, which can be very slow; or they render at a lower resolution and then need to do an extra scaling step each frame.

If we manage to make SDL2's Wayland backend the default and then add WPviewport support to it then this should help by reducing an extra memcpy/blit of a desktop-sized pixmap. Currently what apps which use scaling do is:

  1. render lower-res-pixmap;

  2. scale lower-res-pixmap to desktop-res-pixmap

  3. give desktop-res-pixmap to the compositor;

  4. compositor does a hardware blit of the desktop-res-pixmap to the framebuffer.

With viewport support this becomes:

  1. render lower-res-pixmap;

  2. give low-res-pixmap to the compositor;

  3. compositor uses hardware to do a scaling blit from the low-res-pixmap to the desktop-res framebuffer

Also with viewport support, the compositor could in the case of there only being the one fullscreen app even keep the framebuffer in lowres and use a hardware scaling drm-plane to send the low-res framebuffer scaled to desktop-res to the output while only reading the low-res framebuffer from memory saving a ton of memory bandwidth. But this optimization is going to be a challenge to pull off.
me

Wayland itches summary

Thank you all for the large amount of feedback I have received after my previous Wayland Itches blog post. I've received over 40 mails, below is an attempt at summarizing all the mails.

Highlights

1. Middle click on title / header bar to lower the Window does not work for native apps. Multiple people have reported this issue to me. A similar issue was fixed for not being able to raise Windows. It should be easy to apply a similar fix for the lowering problem. There are bugs open for this here, here and here.

2. Running graphical apps via sudo or pxexec does not work. There are numerous examples of apps breaking because of this, such as lshw-gui and usbivew. At least for X11 apps this is not that hard to fix. But sofar this has deliberately not been fixed. The reasoning behind this is described in this bug. I agree with the reasoning behind this, but I think it is not pragmatic to immediately disallow all GUI apps to connect when run as root starting today.

We need some sort of transition period. So when I find some time for this, I plan to submit a merge-requests which optionally makes gnome-shell/mutter start Xwayland with an xauth file, like how it is done when running in GNOME on Xorg mode. This will be controlled by a gsettings option, which will probably default to off upstream and then distros can choice to override this for now, giving us a transition period

Requests for features implemented as external programs on X11

There are various features which can be implemented as external programs
on X11, but because of the tighter security need to be integrated into the
compositor with Wayland:

  • Hiding of the mouse-cursor when not used à la unclutter-xfixes, xbanish.

  • Rotating screen 90 / 270 degrees à la "xrandr -o [left|right]" mostly used through custom hotkeys, possible fix is defining bindable actions for this in gsd-media-keys.

  • Mapping actions to mouse buttons à la easystroke

  • Some touchscreen's, e.g. so called smart-screens for education, need manual calibration. Under X11 there are some tools to get the callibration matrix for the touchscreen, after which this can be manually applied through xinput. Even under X11 this currently is far from ideal but at least it is possible there.

  • Keys Indicator gnome-shell extension. This still works when using Wayland, but only works for apps using Xwayland, it does not work for native apps.

  • Some sort of xkill and xdotool utility equivalents would be nice

  • The GNOME on screen keyboard is not really suitable for use with apps which are not touch-enabled, as it lacks a way to send ctrl + key, etc. Because of this some users have reported that it is impossible to use alternative on screen keyboards with Wayland. Not being able to use alternative on screen keyboards is by design and IMHO the proper fix here is to improve GNOME's on screen keyboard.

App specific problems


  • Citrix ICA Client does not work well with Xwayland

  • Eclipse does not work well with Xwayland

  • Teamviewer does not work with Wayland. It needs to be updated to use pipewire for screencapturing and the RemoteDesktop portal to inject keyboard and mouse events.

  • Various apps lack screenrecording / capture support due to the app not having support for pipewire: gImageReader, green-recorder, OBS studio, peek, screenrecorder, slack

  • For apps which do support pipewire, there is not an option to share the contents of a window, other then the window making the request. On Xorg it is possible to share a random window and since pipewire allows sharing the whole desktop I see no security reason why we would not allow sharing another window.

  • guake window has incorrect size when using HiDPI scaling, see this issue

Miscellaneous problems


  • Mouse cursor is slow / lags

  • Drag and drop sometimes does not work, e.g. dragging files into file roller to compress or out of file roller to extract.

  • Per keyboard layouts. On X11 after plugging in a keyboard, the layout/keymap for just that one keyboard can be updated manually using xinput, allowing different keyboard layouts for different keyboards when multiple keyboards are connected

  • No-title-bar shell extension, X button can be hit unintentionally, see this issue

  • Various issues with keyboard layout switching

Hard to fix issues


  • Alt-F2, r equivalent (restart the gnome-shell)

  • X11 apps running on top of Xwayland do not work well on HiDPI screens

  • Push-to-talk (passive key grab on space) does not work in Mumble when using native Wayland apps, see this issue

Problems with other compositors then GNOME3 / mutter

I've also received several reports about issues when using another Wayland compositor as GNOME / mutter (Weston, KDE, Sway). I'm sorry but I have not looked very closely into these reports. I believe that it is great that Linux users have multiple Desktop Environments to choose from and I wish for the other DEs to thrive. But there are only so many hours in a day so I've chosen to mainly focus on GNOME.
me

The Wayland Itches project

Now that GNOME3 on Wayland is the default in Fedora I've been trying to use this as my default desktop, but until recently I've kept falling back to GNOME3 on Xorg because of various small issues.

To fix this I've switched to using GNOME3 on Wayland as day to day desktop now and I'm working on fixing any issues which this causes as I hit them, aka "The Wayland Itches project". So far I've hit and fixed the following issues:

1. TopIcons

The TopIcons extension, which I depend on for some of my workflow, was not working well under Wayland with GNOME-3.30, only the top row of icons was clickable. This was fixed in GNOME-3.32, but with GNOME-3.32 using TopIcons was causing gnome-shell to go into a loop leading to a very high CPU load. The day I wanted to start looking into fixing this I was chatting to Carlos Garnacho and he pointed out to me that this was fixed a couple of days ago in gnome-shell. The fix for this is in gnome-shell 3.32.2 .

2. Hotkeys/desktop shortcuts not working in VirtualBox Virtual Machines

When running a VirtualBox VM under GNOME3 on Wayland, hotkeys such as alt+tab go to the GNOME3 desktop, rather then being forwarded to the VM as happens under Xorg. This can be fixed by changing 2 settings:

  gsettings set org.gnome.mutter.wayland xwayland-allow-grabs true
  gsettings set org.gnome.mutter.wayland xwayland-grab-access-rules "['VirtualBox Machine']"

This is a decent workaround, but we want things to "just work" of course, so we have been working on some changes to make this just work in the next GNOME version.

3. firefox-wayland

I've been also trying to use firefox-wayland as my day to day browser, this has lead to me filing three firefox bugs and I've switched back to regular
firefox (x11) for now.


If you have any Wayland Itches yourself, please drop me an email at hdegoede@redhat.com explaining them in as much detail as you can and I will see what I can do. Note that I typically get a lot of emails when asking for feedback like this, so I cannot promise that I will reply to every email; but I will be reading them all.
me

Lenovo Ideapad and Yoga laptops and wifi on/off switches

Once upon a time a driver was written for the Lenovo Ideapad firmware interface for handling special keys and rfkill functionality. This driver was written on an Ideapad laptop with a slider on the side to turn wifi on/off, a so called hardware rfkill switch. Sometime later a Yoga model using the same firmware interface showed up, without a hardware rfkill switch. It turns out that in this case the firmware interface reports the non-present switch as always in the off position, causing NetworkManager to not even try to use the wifi effectively breaking wifi.

So I added a dmi blacklist for models without a hardware rfkill switch. The same firmware interface is still used on new Ideapad and Yoga models and since most modern laptops typically do not have such a switch this dmi blacklist has been growing and growing. Just in the 5.1 kernel alone 5 new models were added. Worse as mentioned not being on the list for a model without the hardware switch leads to non working wifi, pretty much leading to any new Ideapad model not working with Linux until added to the list.

To fix this I've submitted a patch upstream turning the huge blacklist into a whitelist. This whitelist is empty for now, meaning that we define all models as not having a rfkill switch. This does lead to a small regression on models which do actually have a hardware rfkill switch, before this commit they would correctly report the wifi being disabled by the hw switch and e.g. the GNOME3 UI would report "wifi disabled in hardware", where as now users will just get an empty list of available wifi networks when the switch is in the off position. But this is a small price to pay to make sure that as of yet unknown and new Ideapad models do not have non-working wifi because of this issue.

As said the whitelist for models which do actually have a hardware rfkill switch is currently empty, so I need your help to fill it. If you have an Ideapad or Yoga laptop with a wifi on/off slider switch on it. Please run "rfkill list" if this contains "ideapad_wlan" in the output then you are using the ideapad-laptop driver. In this case please check that the "Hard blocked" setting for the "ideapad_wlan" rfkill device properly shows no / yes based on the switch position. If this works your model should be added to the new whitelist. For this please run: "sudo dmidecode &> dmidecode.log" and send me an email at hdegoede@redhat.com with the dmidecode.log attached.

Note the patch to change the list to a whitelist has been included in the Fedora kernels starting with kernel 5.0.10-300, so if you have an
Ideapad or Yoga running Fedora and you do see "ideapad_wlan" in the "rfkill list" output, but the "Hard blocked" setting does not respond, try with a kernel older then 5.0.10-300, let me know if you need help with this.

me

Flicker Free Boot FAQ

There have been questions about the Fedora 30 Flicker Free Boot Change in various places, here is a FAQ which hopefully answers most questions:

1) I get a black screen for a couple of seconds during boot?

1.1) If you have an AMD or Nvidia GPU driving your screen, then this is normal. The graphics drivers for AMD and Nvidia GPUs reset the hardware when loading, this will cause the display to temporarily go black. There is nothing which can be done about this.

1b) If you have a somewhat older Intel GPU (your CPU is pre Skylake) then the i915 driver's support to skip the mode-reset is disabled by default (for now) to fix this add "i915.fastboot=1" to your kernel commandline. For more info on modifying the kernel cmdline, see question 7.

1c) Do "ls /sys/firmware/efi/efivars" if you get a "No such file or directory" error then your system is booting in classic BIOS mode instead of UEFI mode, to fix this you need to re-install and boot the livecd/installer in UEFI mode when installing. Alternatively you can try to convert your existing install, note this is quite tricky, make backups first!

1d) Your system may be using the classic VGA BIOS during boot despite running in UEFI mode. Often you can select BIOS mode compatility in your BIOS settings aka the CSM setting. If you can select this on a per component level, set the VIDEO/VGA option to "UEFI only" or "UEFI first", alternatively you can try completely disabling the CSM mode. On some systems you can disable the classic VGA BIOS by disabling / unselecting the "Legacy Option ROMs" option.

2) The vendor-logo/firmware-splash looks squashed or has the wrong size?

Your system may be using the classic VGA BIOS during boot despite running in UEFI mode, see answer 1d.

3) I get a black background instead of the firmware splash while Fedora is booting?

Do "ls /sys/firmware/acpi/bgrt" if you get a "No such file or directory" error then try answers 1c and 1d . If you do have a /sys/firmware/acpi/bgrt directory, but you are still getting the Fedora logo + spinner on a black background instead of on top of the firmware-splash, please file a bug about this and drop me a mail with a link to the bug.

4) Getting rid of the vendor-logo/firmware-splash being shown while Fedora is booting?

If you don't want the firmware-splash to be used as background during boot, you can switch plymouth to the spinner theme, which is identical to the new bgrt theme, except that it does not use the firmware-splash as background, to do this execute the following command from a terminal: "sudo plymouth-set-default-theme -R spinner"

Note that the kernel will restore the vendor-logo early on at boot in case it got damaged by e.g. option ROM messages. If you are switching to the spinner theme you may also want to add "video=efifb:nobgrt" to your kernel commandline. See 7 below for how to edit the kernel commandline.

5) Keeping the firmware-splash as background while unlocking the disk?

If you prefer this, it is possible to keep the firmware-splash as background while the diskcrypt password is shown. To do this do the following:

  1. "sudo mkdir /usr/share/plymouth/themes/mybgrt"

  2. "sudo cp /usr/share/plymouth/themes/bgrt/bgrt.plymouth /usr/share/plymouth/themes/mybgrt/mybgrt.plymouth"

  3. edit /usr/share/plymouth/themes/mybgrt/mybgrt.plymouth, change DialogClearsFirmwareBackground=true to DialogClearsFirmwareBackground=false, change DialogVerticalAlignment=.382 to DialogVerticalAlignment=.6

  4. "sudo plymouth-set-default-theme -R mybgrt"

Note if you do this the disk-passphrase entry dialog may be partially drawn over the vendor-logo part of the firmware-splash, if this happens then try increasing DialogVerticalAlignment to e.g. 0.7 .

6) Get detailed boot progress instead of the boot-splash ?

To get detailed boot progress info press ESC during boot.

7) Always get detailed boot progress instead of the boot-splash ?

To always get detailed boot progress instead of the boot-splash, remove "rhgb" from your kernel commandline:

Edit /etc/default/grub and remove rhgb from GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX and then if you are booting using UEFI (see 1c) run:
"grub2-mkconfig -o /etc/grub2-efi.cfg"
else (if you are booting using classic BIOS boot) run:
"grub2-mkconfig -o /etc/grub2.cfg".
me

Testing Flicker Free Boot on Fedora 29

For those of you who want to give the new Flicker Free Boot enhancements for Fedora 30 a try on Fedora 29, this is possible now since the latest F29 bugfix update for plymouth also includes the new theme used in Fedora 30.

If you want to give this a try, add "plymouth.splash_delay=0 i915.fastboot=1" to your kernel commandline:

  1. Edit /etc/default/grub, add "plymouth.splash_delay=0 i915.fastboot=1" to GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX

  2. Run "sudo grub2-mkconfig -o /etc/grub2-efi.cfg"

Note that i915.fastboot=1 causes the backlight to not work on Haswell CPUs (e.g. i5-42xx CPUs), this is fixed in the 5.0 kernels which are currently available in rawhide/F30.

Run the following commands to get the updated plymouth and the new theme and to select the new theme:

  1. "sudo dnf update plymouth*"

  2. "sudo dnf install plymouth-theme-spinner"

  3. "sudo cp /usr/share/pixmaps/fedora-gdm-logo.png /usr/share/plymouth/themes/spinner/watermark.png"

  4. "sudo plymouth-set-default-theme -R bgrt"

Now on the next boot / installing of offline-updates you should get the new theme.
me

Fedora 30 Flicker Free boot is now fully testable

Fedora 30 now contains all changes changes for a fully Flicker Free Boot. Last week a new version of plymouth landed which implements the new theme for this and also includes a much improved offline-updates experience, following this design.

At boot the display will seamlessly transit from the firmware boot-splash into the new plymouth theme, which uses the firmware boot-splash as background:



If you are using full-disk encryption then the unlock dialog will look like this:



Last, but not least the new plymouth theme looks like this in offline-updates mode:



ATM the texts in the offline-updates theme are not translated. They are rendered using pango + cairo, so we have the capability to make this fully translatable into all languages, I just need to add gettext support to plymouth for this. I plan to do this next week.

This all assumes that you are booting your machine with UEFI and your firmware supports the BGRT extension (which almost all firmware does). Otherwise you will get a dark-grey background instead of the firmware boot-splash.

If you are running rawhide and are seeing a totally different boot-theme then you likely have changed your plymouth theme away from the "charge" default at one point in time; and in that case you are not automatically updated to the new plymouth theme. To switch to the new theme run:

sudo plymouth-set-default-theme -R bgrt

If you do not like the firmware-splash being used as background, you can use the new theme on a dark-grey background instead by running:

sudo plymouth-set-default-theme -R spinner